Electricity is one of the most eye-catching and novel discoveries of the past 400 years.
We might ask, “Has electricity been around that long?”The answer is yes, perhaps for longer than we thought.We first started using electricity in the mid to late 19th century, and it was limited at first.Some of the first notable public works to use electricity were streetlights in Berlin in 1882, 250,000 lights at the World’s Fair in Chicago in 1893, and a bridge over the Seine at the World’s Fair in Paris in 1900.
The so-called Parthian battery is a prehistoric battery found by workers building a railway near Baghdad in 1936.It originated from the Parthian empire and is said to be 2,000 years old.
The battery consists of an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder inserted into a clay pot and filled with a solution of vinegar. The device produces a voltage of 1.1 to 2.0 volts.
Figure 1 illustrates it.
Figure 1: Parthia battery.
An earthen pot of a prehistoric battery containing an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder and filled with vinegar or electrolyte produced a voltage of 1.1 to 2 volts.
Not all scientists agree that the power comes from this Parthian battery.The device may also be plated with a layer of gold or other precious metals.The Egyptians are said to have electroplated antimony on copper 4,300 years ago.Archaeological evidence suggests that the Babylonians were the first to discover and use electroplating, an electrolyte based on grape juice, to make jewelry known as gold plates and stone tools.(c. 250 BC) The Parthians probably ruled Baghdad by electroplating batteries with silver.
Static electricity is one of the earliest modern methods of generating electricity.In 1660, an electric motor was created by Otto von Gehrig from a large sulfur sphere which, when rubbed and rotated, attracted feathers and small pieces of paper.
The Leyden bottle was invented in 1744 by Bishop Klaster, who stored static electricity in a glass bottle lined with metal foil inside and out.Many scientists, including Professor Peter van Musenbrock of Leiden University in the Netherlands, think electricity is like a liquid that can be captured in a bottle.They did not know that the foil formed a capacitor, so when the two men touched the foil, the Leyton bottle gave them a huge shock because it was charged with high voltage.
The first practical application of static electricity was the electric pistol invented by Alessandro Volta (1745-1827).With only one Boolean, he also wanted to provide long-distance communication.A wire supported by wooden poles from Como to Milan, Italy.At the receiving end, the end of the wire is placed in a bottle filled with methane.For a coded event, the wire sends an electric spark that is used to detonate the jar.So this line of communication didn’t work.
Figure 2 is a pencil rendering by Alessandro Volte.
Figure 2: Alessandro Volte, inventor of the battery.
Electric current can split water was discovered by volt, after which the foundation of electrochemistry was laid.
In 1791, Luigi Galvani, working at the University of Bologna, discovered zooelectricity, the phenomenon in which a frog’s muscles contract when a metal object touches them.Volta then conducted a series of experiments using zinc, lead, tin and iron for the positive electrode (cathode) and copper, silver, gold and graphite for the negative electrode (anode).After this, it triggered many people’s interest in current electricity.
As early as 1800 it was discovered that continuous electrical energy could be produced by certain fluids acting as conductors.This discovery led to the first battery in everyday life, called the voltaic battery.Volt found in his research that when batteries are stacked on top of each other at Volt, the voltage increases.Figures 3.1 and 3.2 illustrate their relationship.
Figure 3.1: The silver (A) and zinc (Z) metals of the electrolyte in the cup are soaked and joined together.
Figure 3.2: This experiment was done with batteries in 1796 volt.
Connect the silver and zinc electrodes in series and separate them with paper dipped into the electrolyte.
in 1796，Volta’s experiments with the electric battery.
Metals have different electronic affinities in batteries.Volta learned that the voltage of the dissimilar metal increases as the distance traveled by the affinity number increases.The first and second numbers in the following metals are electron affinity and oxidation state, respectively.
The battery voltage is determined by the metal, which is separated by wet paper soaked in salt water.
That same year, his discovery was announced to the Royal Court in London by Volt, a continuous power source.The result is not just a spark that lasts a fraction of a second, but a current that never runs out.France was the first country where volt was officially recognized.
France was at the height of its technological growth.Because they helped to help the country’s political progress, the public strongly liked the new stuff.Volta gives a lecture at the French Academy.Napoleon also participated in these experiments, in which the battery was extracted with sparks, and the temperature rose to a wire that released an electron pistol, and the elements could be separated from the water (see Figure 4).
Figure 4: The world was so impressed by Volt’s discovery that in November 1800, volt was invited by the French Institute to speak at an event napoleon attended.
And he was helped to complete the experiment by Napoleon. After the battery was extracted spark, the temperature rose and the steel wire released the electron pistol, and the element could be decomposed from the water by it.
In 1800, Humphry Davy, the inventor of the miner’s safety lamp, tested the chemical effects of electricity, and discovered that substances decompose when they are passed an electric current.
Electrolysis is the name given to this process.
The world’s most powerful battery was installed in the basement of the Royal Academy of Sciences in London, and the first electric light was produced by connecting a battery to a charcoal electrode.People who saw it said the brightest rising arc of light ever was emitted by his arc lamp.
The first mass-produced battery was designed by William Cruickshank in 1802.Square pieces of copper and zinc of equal size were placed in a wooden rectangular box and welded together.The metal plates are held in place because of grooves in the box.The box is sealed, and it’s filled with a saline electrolyte or diluted acid.A completely submerged battery, like today’s.Figure 5 shows his battery shop.
Figure 5: When Cruickshank and William Cruickshank, the English chemist who made the first submerged battery, made a battery by connecting square sheets of copper and zinc and placing them in a wooden rectangular box containing an electrolyte solution.This is a water-filled design, which has the advantage that the solution does not disappear, does not dry out even when used, and can have more energy than volta’s disc design.
Invention of the Rechargeable Battery
In 1836, an improved battery was developed by John F. Daniel, a chemist from England, which produced a more stable current than previously stored electricity.The first lead-acid battery was invented in 1859 by Gaston Pelant, a French physician, and is still in use today.
The nickel-cadmium battery was invented in 1899 by Sweden’s Waldemar Jungner. The positive electrode (cathode) was made of nickel and the negative electrode (anode) was made of cadmium.Lead is restricted by high material costs.Nickel-iron batteries were developed two years later when Edison replaced cadmium with iron.Nickel-iron batteries are unlikely to be used successfully because of their low specific energy, poor low temperature performance, and high self-discharge capacity.It was not until 1932 that sintered plates were invented by Schlecht and Ackermann that higher load currents were achieved and the life of nickel-cadmium alloys was extended.In 1947, the crypt was successfully sealed by Georg Neumann.
For many years, nicD was the only battery in portable applications.In the 1990s, European environmentalists began to worry about the dangers of haphazard disposal of neonatal care.In the European Union, nickel-cadmium batteries are currently restricted from sale by the Battery Directive 2006/66/ EC. There are no other applications suitable for this battery except for specific industrial applications.Another option is the more environmentally friendly nickel-like battery nickel-metal hydride (NIMH).
There is now most research activity on improving lithium-ion battery systems.Devices powered by lithium ion include mobile phones, electric cars, laptops, digital cameras, satellites, power tools and medical equipment.Its most significant advantages are its high energy ratio, easy to charge, low maintenance cost and relatively environmentally friendly, does not waste resources.
Electricity Through Magnetism
In the early days, the power plant produced direct current and its distribution was limited to a certain range, which was 3 kilometers away from the plant.Around 1886, the Niagara Falls Electric Company (NFPC) wanted to transmit electricity over long distances, so it paid $100,000 for it.After a lot of discussion and failed suggestions and proposals from many companies, a meeting of the world’s brightest minds was held in London, England. A Serbian immigrant named NikolaTesla (1856-1943) was awarded the prize for his creation of the AC drive system.Electricity is delivered from the New Niagara generating station to Buffalo, N.Y., through a multiphase ac system that Nrpc established with Tesla as a consultant.
Figure 6: Nikola Tesla (1856-1943).
Serbian-american physicist, inventor, and engineer noted for alternating current supply systems and rotating magnetic fields.
Direct current needs to run through heavy wire at low voltage;Alternating current can be passed through lightweight wires at a higher voltage.Washington was supported by older people, while AC was supported by younger people.Thomas Edison was very much against alternating current because of its danger of electric shock.
People are still debating which one to choose, but the public already has an answer in mind, that AC is very standard, and Europe is very supportive of this option, they also choose AC.George Westinghouse was the American inventor and manufacturer who started the Development of the Tesla system, and it was the development of the system that made Thomas Edison unhappy, and even infuriated him.
At the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893, everyone was taken aback by the AC power source, which simply shone (Figure 7).Westinghouse then wanted to convert the power of Niagara Falls into electricity, and a huge effort was made to convert the power of Niagara Falls into electricity by building three large generators.Three-phase AC technology was invented by Tesla, and it has made great progress in reducing transmission costs, especially over long distances.Because of the progress of this technology, people can widely use electricity, and improve the quality of life, so that people’s life is more convenient, happy.
Photo 7: the 1993 Chicago World’s Fair, also known as Chicago’s Columbia World’s Fair, was a spectacular event with 250,000 lights on. Using the principles of the success of electric lighting, Niagara Falls built three large hydroelectric generators, which helped to host many large events.
In the middle of the 19th century, new professions were being developed, thanks to the telegraph, which opened up new directions for bright young men.Learn how to use cable, can operate the equipment of the middle class people, they are growing, but it is happy that they don’t have to use the strength to fight, can from the factories and mines, and won’t be covered in dirt, and not to let his devoted to danger, as workers, they are very tired and very dangerous.Andrew Carnegie, a steel magnate who spent his early years working as a telegraph messenger, recalled a memorable day: Alfred Hitchcock was an estimator turned illustrator.
In the early 20th century, electronic vacuum tube was invented. After that, the world moved further towards high technology. Its invention is very important and meaningful.This was followed by radio broadcasting in the 1920s and enIAC, the first digital computer, in 1946.The basis for the invention of the integrated circuit a decade later was the transistor, invented in 1947, which laid the foundation for the microprocessor of the information age.This is because their invention has revolutionized the way we live, study and work.
Since the advent of electricity, it has become very dependent on people, because of people’s travel requirements, people need to take away electricity, that is to use portable electricity, like batteries and things like that.With the development of economy and the progress of battery invention, people need more and more portable battery, because it is more suitable for people’s life style.